Books

For Verhandelingen publications earler than 2000, see sub-folder

Bulbeck, David and Ian Caldwell. (2000) Land of iron. The historical archaeology of Luwu and the Cenrana valley: results of the Origin of Complex Society in South Sulawesi Project (OXIS). Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies Occasional Publications Series, University of Hull.

Cummings, William. 2010. The Makassar Annals. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Cummings, William. 2007. (ed and transl.) A chain of kings. The Makassarese chronicles of Gowa and Talloq. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Druce, Stephen 2009. The lands west of the lakes : a history of the Ajattappareng kingdoms of South Sulawesi, 1200 to 1600 CE. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Henley, David. 2005. Fertility, food and fever. Population, economy and environment in North and Central Sulawesi, 1600-1930. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Kallupa, Bahru, David Bulbeck, Ian Caldwell, Iwan Sumantri, Karaeng Demmanari. 1989. Survey pusat kerajaan Soppeng 1100-1986.  Canberra: The authors; final report to the Australian Myer Foundation.

Kern, R. A. (1939). I La Galigo. Catalogus der Boegineesche, tot den I La Galigo-cyclus behoorende handschriften bewaard in het Legatum Warneranium te Leiden alsmede in andere Europeesche bibliotheken. Leiden: Legatum Warneranium and Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde.

Macknight, Campbell  (ed. and transl.) 2012. Bugis and Makasar. Two short grammars. Canberra: Karuda Press.

O’Connor, Sue, David Bulbeck and Juliet Meyer. 2018. The archaeology of Sulawesi. Current research on the Pleistocene to the historic period. Terra Australis 18.

Pelras, Christian. 1996. The Bugis. Oxford: Blackwell.

Noorduyn, J. 1955. Een achttiende-eeuwse kroniek van Wadjo’. Buginese historiography. ‘s-Gravenhage: H. L. Smits.

Terra Australis
TOC Terra Australis 1
TOC Terra Australis 2
6. Lontaraq Balusu

The lands west of the lakes

A history of the Ajattappareng kingdoms of South Sulawesi, 1200 to 1600 CE

Stephen Druce

The period 1200-1600 CE saw a radical transformation from simple chiefdoms to kingdoms (in archaeological terminology, complex chiefdoms) across lowland South Sulawesi, a region that lay outside the ‘classical’ Indicized parts of Southeast Asia. The rise of these kingdoms was stimulated and economically supported by trade in prestige goods with other parts of the Indonesian archipelago, yet the development of these kingdoms was determined by indigenous, rather than imported, political and cultural precepts. Starting in the thirteenth century, the region experienced a transition from swidden cultivation to wet-rice agriculture; rice was the major product that the lowland kingdoms of South Sulawesi exchanged with archipelagic traders.

The Lands West of the Lake demonstrates this progression to political complexity by combining a range of sources and methods, including oral, textual, archaeological, linguistic and geographical information and analysis as he explores the rise and development of five South Sulawesi kingdoms, known collectively as Ajattappareng – the Lands West of the Lakes.

The author Stephen Druce also presents an inquiry into oral traditions of a historical nature in South Sulawesi. He examines their functions, their processes of transmission and transformation, their uses in writing history and their relationship to written texts. He shows that any distinction between oral and written traditions of a historical nature is largely irrelevant, and that the South Sulawesi chronicles, which can be found only for a small number of kingdoms, are not characteristic (as some have argued) but exceptional in the corpus of indigenous South Sulawesi historical sources.

The Lands West of the Lake will be of primary interest to scholars of pre-European-contact Southeast Asia, including historians, archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists and geographers, and scholars with a broader interest in oral tradition and the relationship between the oral and written registers. 

Grammars


Bugis and Makassar. Two short grammars – the first in the series South Sulawesi Studies from Karuda Press – is devoted to English translations from the Dutch originals of two short linguistic works on Bugis and Makasar, the major languages of the peninsula. The notes on AA Cense’s lecture on Makasar (almost certainly taken by JL Swellengrebel in circumstances explained in a later section) are sufficiently remarkable in their origin to justify publication both in facsimile and translation. J Noorduyn’s account of the Bugis language was based, as he gratefully acknowledges, on Cense’s field research in the 1930s. The result is a linguistic tour de force in precision, clarity and scope, despite its brevity.


Fertility, food and fever. Population, economy and environment in North and Central Sulawesi, 1600-1930 combines historical geography, historical demography and environmental history to examine the long-term relationships between population, economy and environment in the northern half of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Using a rich variety of Dutch historical sources, it attempts to reconstruct and analyse patterns of demographic, economic and landscape change through this large and ecologically diverse region over a period of almost three and a half centuries. Particular attention is given to the articulation between demographic and economic growth, to levels and determinants of reproductive fertility, to changing disease environments, and to the issue of agricultural sustainability and its preconditions. The results call into question some common views regarding the reasons for low population growth, and the relationship between population density and landscape change, in the Southeast Asian past.

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The chronicles of Gowa and Talloq are the most important historical sources for the study of pre-colonial Makassar. They have provided the basic framework and much of the information that we possess about the origins, growth, and expansion of Gowa during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During this period Gowa and its close ally Talloq became the most powerful force in the eastern Indonesian archipelago, and historians have relied heavily on the chronicles to chart the developments of this period. Available for the first time in English translation, the two texts will offer historians and other scholars an invaluable foundation on which to base interpretations of this crucial place and time in Indonesian history.

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Beginning in the 1630s, a series of annalists at the main courts of Makassar began keeping records with dated entries that recorded a wide variety of specific historical information about a wide variety of topics, including the births and deaths of notable individuals, the actions of rulers, the spread of Islam, trade and diplomacy, the built environment, ritual activity warefare, internal political struggles, social and kinship relations, eclipses and comets, and more. These Lontarat bilang were a clear departure in form and function from the genealogically-structured chronicles being composed about the ruling families of Gowa and Talloq in the same era. By the end of 1751, nearly 2400 entries had been completed. This is the first English translation and annotation of the annals.



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